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Catherine the Great , herself ethnically German, invited Germanic farmers to immigrate and settle in Russian lands along the Volga River.
She guaranteed them the right to retain their language, religion and culture. Ethnic Germans were also sent by her in organised colonisation attempts aiming at Germanisation of conquered Polish areas.
Also in other areas with an ethnic German minority people of other than German descent assimilated with the ethnic German culture and formed then a part of the minority.
Examples are people of Baltic and Scandinavian descent, who assimilated into the minority of the Baltic Germans. Jews of Posen province , Galicia , Bukovina and Bohemia , with their Yiddish culture derived in part from their German heritage, often mingled into the ethnic German culture, thus forming part of the various ethnic German minorities.
Frederick the Great reigned — settled around , colonists in the eastern provinces of Prussia, acquired in the First Partition of Poland of , with the intention of replacing the Polish nobility.
He treated the Poles with contempt and likened the "slovenly Polish trash" in newly occupied West Prussia to Iroquois , the historic Native American confederacy based in the state of New York.
Prussia encouraged a second round of colonisation with the goal of Germanisation after The Prussian Settlement Commission relocated , colonists, including locals.
The reconstitution of Poland following the Treaty of Versailles made ethnic German minorities of some Prussian provinces of the German Empire citizens of the Polish nation state.
Tensions between the new administration and the ethnic German minority arose in the Polish Corridor. The Austrian Germans also found themselves not allowed to join Germany as German Austria was strictly forbidden to join Germany as well as the name "German Austria" was forbidden so the name was changed back to just "Austria" and the First Austrian Republic was created in They constituted an important minority far into Russia.
Because of widespread assimilation some people whom the Nazis called Volksdeutsche could no longer speak German and in fact were culturally regionalized as Poles, Hungarians, Romanians, Czechs, Slovaks, etc.
In the Nazis set up an office to act as a contact for the foreign ethnic Germans. According to the historian Valdis Lumans,.
Nazi propaganda used the existence of ethnic Germans who they called Volksdeutsche in foreign lands before and during the war, to help justify the aggression of Nazi Germany.
The annexation of Poland was presented as necessary to protect the ethnic German minorities there. Before and during World War II , some ethnic Germans gathered around local Nazi organizations sponsored financially by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Third Reich ,   actively supported the Nazis in countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia.
During the social and economic tensions of the Great Depression , some had begun to feel aggrieved with their minority status. They participated in espionage, sabotage and other Fifth column means in their countries of origin, trained and commanded by Abwehr.
Among the indigenous populations in the Nazi-occupied lands, Volksdeutsche became a term of ignominy. During the early years of the Second World War i.
Some of these enlisted and fought in the German army. Ethnic Germans throughout Europe benefited financially during World War II from the Nazi policies of genocide and ethnic cleansing , and profited from the expulsion and murder of their non-German neighbors.
It organised the mass murder of Polish elites in Operation Tannenberg. At the beginning of , the Selbstschutz organization was disbanded, and its members transferred to various units of the SS, Gestapo and the German police.
Throughout the invasion of Poland , some ethnic German minority groups assisted Nazi Germany in the war effort.
They committed sabotage, diverted regular forces and committed numerous atrocities against civilian population. The German occupants encouraged such registration, in many cases forcing it or subjecting Poles of German ethnicity to terror assaults if they refused.
The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle organised large-scale looting of property and redistributed goods to the Volksdeutsche. They were given apartments, workshops, farms, furniture, and clothing confiscated from Jewish Poles and Poles of Polish ethnicity.
In turn, hundreds of thousands of the Volksdeutsche joined the German forces, either willingly or under compulsion. Many families had lived in Poland for centuries; and more-recent immigrants had arrived over 30 years before the war.
They faced the choice of registering and being regarded as traitors by other Poles, or not signing and being treated by the Nazi occupation as traitors to the Germanic "race".
In occupied Poland, Volksdeutscher enjoyed privileges and were subject to conscription into the German army. In occupied Pomerania , the Gauleiter of the Danzig-West Prussia region Albert Forster ordered a list of people considered of German ethnicity to be made in Due to insignificant voluntary registrations by February , Forster made signing the Volksliste mandatory and empowered local authorities to use force and threats to implement the decree.
The special case of Polish Pomerania , where terror against civilians was particularly intense, and where, unlike in rest of occupied Poland, signing of the list was mandatory for many people, was recognised by the Polish Underground State and other anti-Nazi resistance movements, which tried to explain the situation to other Poles in underground publications.
The Deutsche Volksliste categorised non-Jewish Poles of German ethnicity into one of four categories: Volksdeutsche of statuses 1 and 2 in the Polish areas annexed by Germany numbered 1,,, and Nos.
In the General Government there were , Volksdeutsche. Volksdeutsche of Polish ethnic origins were treated by the Poles with special contempt, but were also committing high treason according to Polish law.
Because of actions by some Volksdeutsche and particularly the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany , after the end of the war, the Polish authorities tried many Volksdeutsche for high treason.
In the postwar period, many other ethnic Germans were expelled to the west and forced to leave everything. General and disaster rescue skills for emergency services personnel PDF 5th ed.
Retrieved 5 July Retrieved from " https: Tools Cranes machines Lifting equipment Architecture stubs. Commons category link is on Wikidata All stub articles.
Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan, Alaska , circa Totem poles in front of homes in Alert Bay, British Columbia in the s.
Competitions to make the tallest pole remain prevalent, although it is becoming more difficult to procure trees of sufficient height.
The thickest totem pole ever carved to date is in Duncan, British Columbia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Totem pole disambiguation.
Heraldic Columns of the Northwest Coast". Retrieved 21 January Home Before the Raven Caws: The Mystery of a Totem Pole Rev. Garfield and Linn A.
The Wolf and the Raven: Totem Poles of Southeastern Alaska. University of Washington Press. According to Crests and Topics".
National Museum of Canada Bulletin. Retrieved 24 November According to Crests and Topics", p. Totem Poles of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
The Totem Pole Indians. Traditionally, several families within the same a clan lived together in a large communal house. From Totems to Hip-Hop: A Multicultural Anthology of Poetry across the Americas, Bob started a few months ago as low man on the totem pole.
Secret Stories in the Art of the Northwest Indian. Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 3 December Sitka National Park archived website content.
Archived from the original on 10 November Decoding Totems in the New Deal Speech. Retrieved 31 March Bringing Superwrongness to Life".
Retrieved 12 January Indian Country Media Network. Retrieved 12 September The Na Na Kila Institute. Archived from the original on Retrieved 4 May National Film Board of Canada.